Besides the ancient towns and settlements there
are a lot of memorial- cult architectural monuments-the masterpieces
of the architects of the IX-XII centuries- scattered all over the
territory of Tajikistan. While erecting monumental architecture
in IX-X, the raw brick was replaced by the burnt brick. The architectural
methods had been changed as well: elliptical arches and vaults were
replaced by lancet; the methods of erecting domes on the arch sail
had been improved; the burnt brick become the main construction
material in decorating the architectural monuments.
If during IX-X centuries the main setting for facades and interier
of buildings was burnt brickwork, then from the beginning XII century
intensive many-coloured decorative tile is introduced, which later
completely coats the architectural and constructive foundation of
the buildings. In XIII century, in Mongolian invasion to Central
Asia, no significant building was saved. In XIV-XV centuries, during
the rule of Timur and Timurids the architecture entered new stage,
characterized by magnificent decorations of the constructed buildings.
The monuments of IX-XII centuries are the Mausoleum medrese compound
of Khodja Mashhad and mausoleum "Khodja Durbod". They
are located in the village Saiyod in Shahritus region, and are the
unique work of the ancient architectures. If the mausoleum "Khodja
Durbod" was built from the burnt brick, then the mausoleum
"Khodja Sarboz" (XI-XII) near Saiyod was built from the
raw brick. It has square planning and cupola-shaped ceiling with
eight arch sails and apertures. In Kabadiyan and Shahtitus regions,
there are various architectural monuments, erected from the raw
brick, such as Lailakr Uya, Ak- Mazar and others. The unique mausoleums
are "Mavlono Obiddin" and "Mavlono Tojiddin"
in Dangara region, built in the X-XII. The unique masterpiece of
the wooden architecture is mazar in the village Chorku (X-XII) near
Isfara. In XI- XIII centuries the mausoleum "Khodja Nakshron"
(present Tursunzoda) was build, which continuous the tradition of
the architectural method, initiated in Khodja Mashhad. Here one
can see that the skilful pplication of figure brick works reaches
perfection, making impression of refinement of decorative colonnade.
At the same time the mausoleum of "Muhammad Bashoro" in
Penjikent was being build. The burial-vault of Amir Said Hamadoni
in Kulob has the peculiar planning.
The mosque "Abdullatif Sultan" in Uroteppa (XV) is a pattern
of rare type of Friday mosque palace. The
mausoleum "Abduqodir Jeloni" (XI-XVI) has the unusual
refined decorative interior. Unique is the burial-vault of Sheik
Muslihitdin" in Khujand. The particular architectural monument
of the XIV-XV centuries is the mausoleum "Makdumi Azam"
and the Sangin mosque in Hissar region. The tradition of architectural
decor, having achieved its acme in the epoch of Samanids, can be
seen in the following epochs. The architectural monuments in Ura-teppe
are the Mausoleum-Ensemble Sari-Mazor" (XVI) consisting of
the two-portal mausoleum; a mosque; and a building for the unknown
purpose "Ajina khona"; the mosque "Bobo Tagho"
(XVI), a mausoleum "Hudoyera Valyami", a mosque - mausoleum
"Hazrati Shoh" (XVIII). They are known by their refined
decoration of interior and facade. All these monuments are invaluable
cultural heritage and treasury of the Tajik people.