Adventure on the Great Pamir in Tajikistan Pamir TRAVEL

Central Asia - Turkmenistan

Elaborately woven, bright crimson carpets created by the delicate hands of nomadic tribal women have become the artistic symbol of Turkmenistan, a country of sweeping deserts which played a vital role in the history of the Silk Road Three centuries before Christ, the Parthian tribes of horsemen arrived to establish their capital in Turkmenistan at Nisa When their empire eventually encompassed much of Central Asia, the Parthians were a power which rivaled Rome From Nisa, the Parthians controlled the Silk Road and oasis settlements and trading centers like the region's harsh desert cities of Merv and Serakhs Ruins of these ancient sites, excavated and studied by international teams of archaeologists, can be visited and enjoyed today Turkmenistan later gained fame throughout Central Asia for producing the skilled and fierce nomadic tribes men who rode out on raids to seize the riches of the passing caravans These days more benign tribal customs such as hospitality are making Turkmenistan famous.

What to See
  • The Parthian Capital of Nisa dates from the 3rd century BC and was inhabi ted up until the 19th cen tury Diggings have revea led a grandiose architectu ral complex consisting of an extensive palace with ceremonial hall, treasure house and residences There are also ruins at nearby New Nisa
  • The Ancient City of Merv is one of the oldest inhabi ted sites in Central Asia At one point in its history, Merv was called"The Pearl of the East" Razed by the Mongols it was rebuilt over the centuries and today five distinct cities cover 130 square kilometers
  • Serakhs was a Silk Road oasis on the route from Nishapur in nearby Persia to Merv and was in its heyday from the 10th to 12th centuries Once known for its architectural wonders, Serakhs now boasts the mausoleums of Abul-Fazy, Yarti-Gumbez and Shiekh Lokman
  • Kunya-Urgench was the capital of old Khorezm, which in the 8th century was the largest indepen dent Muslim state in Central Asia At one point in its history the city was called Gurgenj and flourish ed as a stopover on the Silk Road artery to Russia Today, pre Mongol monu ments and ruins of mauso leums, minarets and fort resses attract visitors.

    Kunya-Urgench Kunya-Urgench
How to Get There
Turkmenistan's capital Ashgabat has regularly scheduled air links with London, Frankfurt, Moscow, Abu Dhabi New Delhi Karachi, Tehran, Istanbul and other regional foreign cities Tourists can also enter the country at the Caspian Sea port of Turkmenbashi Within Turkmenistan there is air service to provincial cities from the capital All Silk Road sites are served by air rail or road transport.

Where to Stay

There is a network of modern hotels around the country with nine five star establishments for 648 people, three four star hotels for 53 people and two two star hotels which can accommo date 91 people There are also more modest facilities Ashgabat's better hotels have conference facilities.

Other Important Sites
  • Mashad-Misrian, an ancient oasis and trading center on the Khorezm-Persia route, is now a jumble of ruins of fortress walls and towers, mos ques, mausoleums and minarets Recently discovered remains of three caravanserais from the 11th to 12th centuries attest to the city's mercan tile past
  • Annau Fortress is near the capital and boasts 15th century ruins
  • The Medieval City of Abiverd was an important trading post from the 5th to the 7th centuries
  • Daja-Khatm Caravanserai is a remarkable structure dating from the 13th century
  • Amul Fortress dates from the 15th century and is located near Chard) ev
  • The Ancient Settlement of Parau is centred around Kizil-Arvat

The Republic of TURKMENISTAN occupying over 717, 300 sq. km, is the Turkmenistan lies in the very center of the Central Asia. This Location predetermined historically its great geopolitical importence on the major transasian lines of communication between the East and the West. Turkmenistan border with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran and Afganistan.


Turkmenistan covering vast territory is notable for the extremely diverse relief: from high snowy mountains to steppes, semidesert and desert. The lowest place in the World, situated in the West.


Climate of Turkmenistan is sharp continental.


Turkmenistan is a multinational state. There are over 5 million inhabitans in Turkmenistan today. Turkmen make 48%, Russia 30%, other nationalities (over 100) 22%.


Turkmen and Russia, the official landuage of the country, belongs to the TURK group. Russan remains the language of the interethnic communication.


Multinationality of the state determines a divirsity of religions. The main ones are Islam & Christianity.


The city of ASHGABAD with the population of 600 thousands is the capital of Turkmenistan. Ashgabad was founded as a Russia garrison town three days after the killing of 20000 Turkmens at GeokTeppe in 1881, and was hit by earthqake's in 1893, 1895 and 1929. In 1948 the earthquake completely destroed the city and killed 110, 000.


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