Adventure on the Great Pamir in Tajikistan Pamir TRAVEL

Historical places of Tajikistan

Mausoleum Amir Said Hamadoni, XIV-XVII centuries (Kulob)

It's a burial place of famous Persian-Tajik scientist, Mirsaid Khamadoni and his successors. He was known as the author of the books on philosophy, sophism, ethics, didactics. Mausoleum has a portal cupola structure with asymmetric plan. The building is made from the burnt brick on glue grout, and cupolas are made with
alabaster grout. Central hall is covered by twin dome. Mausoleum was renovated several times. Researchers: S.G. Khmelnitsky (1985), A.M. Belinitsky (1958).
The monument is restorated. The Kulob historical museum is setup here. (1995) Mausoleum is place of pilgrimage of Muslims and amateurs of history.

Penjikent town V- VII centuries.

Total area of town is 14 ha; the length of defensive walls is 2 km. Citadel with palace of ruler Devashticha was excavated, as well as two fire temples with vast yards, eight main streets, ten lanes, stores, workshops, markets and fortification walls. 150 many storied and two and three storied dwelling houses, which belonged to different groups of population were investigated.

The unique patterns of wall painting, wood carving columns and beams were found. They decorated the palaces and temples. In 1978, Penjikent historico-archeological preserve of Academy of Science Republic of Tajikistan was set up on the basis of the discovered materials Researchers: A.U.Yakubovskiy (1946-1952), A.M. Beleniskiy (1952-1980), B.M. Marshak (1980)

The materials are saved in the State Hermitage (Saint-Petersburg), Penjikent historico-archeological preserve (Penjikent city), in the fund of Institute of History (Dushanbe)

Mausoleum "Muhammad Bashoro", XI-XII, XIV centuries

It is situated in Mazori Sharif village of Penjikent region. The mausoleum is unique by its complicated planning and splendid portal, constructed in the XIV century. In the decoration of the portal, the pieces of turquoise majolica are skilfully incorporated, along with the finest panel of carved terracotta. Researchers: V.N. Voronina (1954), S.G Khmelnitsky (1965,1970). It is used as sacred place for pilgrimage . Partially reconstructed and conserved. The monument needs renovation.

Bazar-Dara. The miners town, XI century.

It was constructed during the exploitation of the silver deposits in east Pamir in the period of "silver crisis" in Central Asia. It is located on northern slopes of North Alichur range in the valley of the Aq-Jilga river at 3980 m about the sea level.
It consists of caravan-saray, administrative building, urban residential buildings, fire temple, cemetery (with more than 500 graves). Near the river, the bathroom is build with underground heating.

Perspective of caravan-saray of Bazar-Dara

The town Kalai-Kahkaha or Bunjikant, the capital of Usturushan, VII-IX centuries.

It is situated not far from the center of Shahristan, Sughd region. It referes to VI-IX centuries, and was the center of feudal estate of Usturushan, of Bunjikat twon. The large palace with 20 rooms, big and small reception halls was excavated.

Frescos, fragments of carving from the castle Kahkaha

The walls of the palace halls were painted by miniature paintings: scenes of battle, fiestas, and legends. In one of the wall there was painted a wolf, feeding two babies. Wood columns, beams and consoles were covered by superb carving of geometrical and flora ornaments, scene compositions, images of people, animals, birds and fantastic things. The town was strongly fortified and had good conveniences. Despite the palace of Afshines it had residential buildings for various groups of population, the temple of idols, trade squares and ground. Excavations were held under the leadership of Academic N.N. Negmatov (1955-1960, 1965-1972), Findings are preserved in the National museum of Antiquity of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Derudj (Djaushangoz) VII-VIII centuries.

It is situated on the right of bank of river Djaushangoz on rocky ledge. It blocked the ways to the valley of the river Shah-dara from the pass Mats and from the top of Tokuz-Bulak river. It is surrounded by the defensive walls, which is fortified by the towers.

Researchers: Serebryanikov (1894), A. Stein (1915), A.N. Bernshtam (1947), A.D. Babaev (1960).

Houlbuk town , IX-XII centuries.

1.Khulbuk Palace Reconstruction
2.Fragment of palace portal with kufic circumscription
It is located in Kurbon Shahid village of Vosse region. It consists of citadel, palace of ruler and the town. The total area is 70 ha.
The palaces of ruler, separate halls are fully excavated. The particular value present the exit portal-gates of Houlbuk, ganch-chasing thread, which decorated the walls of the palace, in which geometrical and flora ornament is blend with Kuflc inscription and figures of lions.

Fragments of ornamental decor

Fragments of ceramic products with enamel IX-XII cc. Khulbuk
Researcher: Academician B.A. Litvinsky (1953-1957). E. Gulomova (1957-1994)
Findings are kept in the fund of Institute of history, Academy of Science Republic of Tajikistan.

Mausoleum-mosque compound Khazrati Shoh, -XII centuries.
The unique masterpiece of wooden architecture is mazar in Chorku village near Isfara, representing open square colonnade. The ornament threads cover all the preserved parts of colonnade. Figures in the beams - consoles are the original wooden
sculptures. Researchers: B.L. Voronina (1951), M.R. Ruziev (1970).
The monument was restored in 1999.

Mosque Lailak, XI-XII centuries Kabadian region.

Mosque with two cupolas and arches, constructed of raw bricks. It is a cult building, the place of worship, functioning at present time Researchers S.G. Khmelnitsky, A.M. Mukhtarov (1969)

Mausoleum Shoi Khomush, XI-XII centuries
Muminabad region.

It's situated in Langar village. It has underground burial vault. The famous connoisseur of khadis is buried here. It is a place of pilgrimage of Muslims. The monument is renovated in 1994. Researchers: P.T. Samoilic (1985-1987)

Sayed town, IX-XI centuries.

It is located on the bank of the Pyanj River in Moscovskiy region at the foot of Urtabuza. It consists of Shahristan citadel. The palace is excavated. It was the dwelling compound of great feudal. It has square plan with vast yard, around which domesticity and residential premises are located. The walls are decorated by the ganch threading. Excavations were conducted in 1971-1985 by the archaeologist E.Gulomova and V.Bogutin. Bagutin designed the draft of reconstruction of palaces, residential premises and decors.

Mausoleum "Khoja Durbod"

Xl-XII centuries, 6 kilometres from the Saiyod village, is one of the unique masterpieces of ancient architecture. It is unique by its unusual planning, square outside and octagonal inside.
If the mausoleum "Khodja Durbod" was built from the burnt brick, then the mausoleum "Khodha Sarboz" (XI-XII) near Saiyod, was built from the raw brick. It has square planning and dome-shaped ceiling containing eight sails and apertures. Researchers: S.G. Khmelnitsky (1971)

Before restoration (1985)

Mausoleum Khodja Durbod, time
of restoration 2000

Mausoleum compound "Khodja Mashad"
IX-XII centuries.

It is the unique monument of the oriental architecture. It is located in Saiyod village in Shahritus region. That mausoleum was built in the X century, originally it had only one central building. The archaic elliptical, not lancet arches were preserved. In XI-XII centuries new dome-shaped building was adjoined to the mausoleum, with by the dense decorative arcade in the facade. This building was richly decorated by ornamented brickwork and terracotta fretwork in the style of Ismail Samanid mausoleum. The dome-shaped structure was connected with the first building by the portal, with the brick laid arch behind it. In the corners of the facade there are the towers-guldasta, and behind the mausoleum there were the vast yards with aivans and vaulted cells-hudjars.
The compound "Khodja Mashhad" has the most ancient structure among all known medreses.
Researchers: S.G. Khmelnitsky (1959 ), A.M. Belenitsky (1947 ), N.B. Nemtseva (1965)
The monument needs renovation.

Mausoleum "Khoja Naqhshron", XI - XIII centuries.

It is located in Tursunzoda. Mausoleum consists of two burials in two premises, small and big mausoleum with the underground bureal vault. In the middle there is a headstone. By plan it is square with ruined cupola and portal. It was build in architectural method, initiated in Khodja Mashhad .The splendid ornametal brickworks reaches perfection, creating image of the refinement of the decorative colonnade. It characterizes the achievement of Tajik architecture in XI- XII centuries.
Researched: B.A.Litvinsky (1950) The monument needs restoration.

Yamchun. Fortress, III-IBC - V-VII centuries.

It is situated above the village Yamchun. It consists of the citadel (on the top square) and is defended by the wall with parapet and 9 towers. The double line of walls surrounded the pace along the slope. The walls are made from the stone, and are fortified by the 30 towers. It served as shelter for the population during the attack of the enemy.
Researchers: O.Olufeen (1898-1899); A.A. Bobrinsky (1901); N.L Korgenevsky (1903), A.Stein (1915), A.V Stanishevsky (Niallo) (1931), B.Luknitsky (1932, 1952), A.N. Bernshtam (1947), A.D. Babaev (1960, 1962), A.N. Zelinsky (1962), M.A.Bubnova(1976)



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